Another CONSEQUENCE of URINARY DISEASE is abnormal substances (or excessive amounts) in urine. Do you recall these definitions?


PROTEINURIA is the presence of excess protein in the urine. A small amount of protein normally is excreted each day (< 100 mg).

Proteinuria may result from pre-renal, renal or post-renal abnormalities. The dipstick (shown here) may be used as a screening test for proteinuria. Protein excretion may also be expressed as the [urine protein/urine creatinine ratio].


HEMOGLOBINURIA is the presence of hemoglobin in the urine. So, the urine is red.

Conditions which cause lysis of red blood cells will result in hemoglobinuria. Note the dark discoloration of the urine in this bladder.


MYOGLOBINURIA is the presence of myoglobin in the urine.

Another term is AZOTURIA - as seen in horses with exertional rhabdomyolysis (tying up; Monday Morning Disease).

This results from damage to skeletal muscle with release of myoglobin into the blood (myoglobinemia) and subsequent excretion in the urine (myoglobinuria).

Special tests are required to distinguish myoglobin from hemoglobin.

GLUCOSURIA is the presence of glucose in the urine. The renal threshold for glucose is low, and thus elevated blood glucose levels will result in glucosuria. There is an easy dipstick test for glucose. Did you remember that glucosuria may result in emphysematous cystitis?


CRYSTALLURIA is the presence of crystals in the urine - usually seen in the sediment. These may predispose to urolithiasis.


PYURIA is pus in the urine - or the presence of inflammatory cells in the urine sediment (neutrophils as seen here).


HEMATURIA is the presence or red blood cells in the urine.

The erythrocytes may have originated from the kidney, ureter, bladder or urethra. Remember they may lyse if urine concentration is dilute.

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